Download Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period (The by A. F. L. Beeston, T. M. Johnstone, R. B. Serjeant, G. R. PDF

By A. F. L. Beeston, T. M. Johnstone, R. B. Serjeant, G. R. Smith

Initially released in 1983, The Cambridge background of Arabic Literature was once the 1st common survey of the sector to were released in English for over fifty years and the 1st tried in such aspect in a multi-volume shape. The volumes of the background supply a useful resource of reference and figuring out of the highbrow, literary and non secular history of the Arabic-speaking and Islamic global. This quantity starts its insurance with the oral verse of the 6th century advert, and ends with the autumn of the Umayyad dynasty centuries later. inside of this era fall significant occasions: the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad, the founding of the Islamic faith, the good Arab Islamic conquests of territories open air the Arabian Peninsula, and their assembly, as overlords, with the Byzantine and Sasanian international. individuals to this quantity talk about an array of issues together with the impacts of Greeks, Persians and Syrians on early Arabic literature.

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Extra info for Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period (The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature)

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Nisbah forms can be derived from the first element of a laqab or the variable element of a regnal title. Such nisbahs, based on their patron's laqab or title, were commonly used by slaves, freedmen or clients. The nisbah al-Sayfl would indicate the bearer as a client of a patron who had the laqab Sayf al-Dln, Sayf al-Mulk or Sayf al-Dawlah; the famous calligrapher Yaqut al-Musta'simi takes his nisbah from the regnal title of the last 'Abbasid caliph al-Musta'sim (billah). Nisbahs of this kind are also used outside the sphere of personal names, for example in book titles: al-Fakhrt is the title of a book dedicated to a governor of Mosul whose laqab was Fakhr al-Dln.

It was united from the first line to the last with one terminal rhyming word (qdfiyah). Mostly the listeners knew the background to the subject of which the poet was to treat. They would listen in expectation of how he would proceed in unfolding the well-known pattern of the qasfdah,10 what variations he would invent and what difficulties he would overcome. How, for example, if his amatory prelude (nasib) was charged with emotion, would he then proceed to a theme of war and valour? How would he achieve the rhyming word in each line and what sort of internal rhyming words and rhythmic devices would he use?

Two other developments stem from the naskh hand. Around the beginning of the eighth/fourteenth century, its tendency to flowing curves was carried even further by the style called shikastah\ this, however, never gained popularity outside Iran and India. In the Arabic-speaking lands, informal writing developed gradually along lines which produced the modern ruq'ah script, nowadays the normal handwriting style. There is an intimate association between Arabic script and the intricate arabesque decoration characteristic of Muslim architecture, though it would hardly be possible to say that either one influenced the other to the exclusion of the reverse process - the influences operated in both directions.

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