By Edwin N. Frankel
The sphere of antioxidants has multiplied over the last six a long time right into a big choice of multidisciplinary parts that impact meals and health. the writer conveys the complexity of antioxidant chemistry by means of offering an appreciation of a few of the phenomena that have an effect on oxidation and its inhibition in meals and organic systems. by way of emphasizing mechanistic points of antioxidants and lipid oxidation, he additionally makes an attempt to split evidence from fiction via picking out the components desiring extra learn to enhance the certainty of complicated antioxidant results and to stimulate larger designed technique and nutritional stories for the future. Beginning with an creation to antioxidants and its chemistry, chapters discover antioxidant motion in multiphase structures, protocols for meals and organic structures, foodstuff antioxidants, antioxidants in biology and browing and glycation rection construction in biology.
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Extra resources for Antioxidants in food and biology: Facts and fiction
By complexing with iron, uric acid stabilizes ascorbic acid in human serum. Ubiquinol-10 (or coenzyme Q10) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant, which may act like ascorbic acid in regenerating vitamin E by reducing the vitamin E radicals produced during lipid peroxidation. 4. Radical chain breakers α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in membranes and lipoproteins, acting by scavenging free radicals (superoxide and hydroxyl radicals) by reacting with nitric oxide and by deactivating singlet oxygen.
This prooxidant activity could be due to the oxidation products of β-carotene acting as free radical promoters of lipid oxidation. On the other hand, β-carotene showed synergistic activity by increasing the antioxidant activity of α-tocopherol, when used in combination during storage of vegetable oils exposed to light. F. Antioxidant enzymes in food systems Enzymes have been exploited as antioxidants in various food applications to remove oxygen from packaged products, to neutralize reactive oxygen species (see Section G) and to reduce lipid hydroperoxides into benign hydroxy products.
Apparently, increasing branching in the para position decreases the ability of the phenoxyl radical to trap a second alkyl peroxyl radical. g. 5), the extent of inhibition is directly related to the antioxidant concentration. g. 6), inhibition increases and goes through a maximum with increasing concentration. 5. Structures of synthetic antioxidants. participation of chain transfer reactions (–10) and (13). The effectiveness of antioxidants depends therefore on the balance between the rates of inhibition reactions (10) and (11) and the rates of chain transfer reactions (–10) and (13).