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The losses can be considerably reduced by using a tracking system that allows an automated adjustment of the module's tilt angle according to the sun's position. Any mechanical tracking system, however, requires regular maintenance and represents a potential reduction of the system reliability. For this reason, tracking systems are usually not used for stand-alone PV systems and a fixed orientation and tilt angle is chosen instead. 5. 5 causes the so-called spectral losses. • Reflection losses Reflection losses are irradiation losses at the surface of the PV module where a part of the incident sunlight is reflected and therefore lost for the energy conversion process.

For stand-alone application, the output waveform of inverters becomes important. The deviation from the ideal sinusoidal voltage is normally described as total harmonic distortion (THD). For high-quality power supply, the THD of the output voltage should be less than 5 %, which corresponds with the quality of the public grid [8]. A second and very important element for stand-alone applications, the ability to provide and to absorb reactive power should be mentioned. Typical loads requesting reactive power are electric motors.

2-7 and 2-8. Iph Icell Iload V load R load ID VD Figure 2-7: Equivalent circuit diagram of an ideal solar cell connected to a load 14 Chapter 2: PV-Diesel hybrid system technology Photo Current Diode Current Cell Current 4,00 I sc 4 3,50 2 1 ID 3,00 Current I [A] 3 2,50 2,00 1,50 1,00 3 0,50 1 2 V oc 4 0,00 0,00 0,05 0,10 0,15 0,20 0,25 0,30 0,35 0,40 0,45 0,50 0,55 0,60 0,65 0,70 Voltage V [V] Figure 2-8: Construction of the solar cell curve from the diode curve When the terminals are short-circuited (Rload = 0), the output voltage and the voltage across the diode is zero.

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