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By Morris J., Lycett J.

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Additional info for A Monograph of the Mollusca from the Great Oolite, Chiefly from Minchinhampton and the Coast of Yorkshire, Part I: Univalves

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A. Ribosomes 1. Prokaryotes A rapidly growing bacterial cell contains about 30,000 ribosomes per genome. This is equivalent to an absolute concentration in the order of 10"5M. The 30 S and 50 S ribosomal subunits are assembled from newly synthesized RNA and proteins (Schlessinger, 1974). The two large rRNA's are synthesized as precursors, called pl6 S and p23 S, from a single transcript, named p30 S. The pl6 S is located at the 5'-end of the transcript and is cleaved during the synthesis of the spacer region separat­ ing pl6 S from p23 S (for recent reviews, see Perry, 1976; Chapter 9 in Volume III).

2. Elongation Factors a. Prokaryotic Factors. Two peptide chain elongation factors in Escherichia coli were first identified in Lipmann's laboratory (Allende et aL, 1964). The elongation factors, named EF-T and EF-G, promote the bind­ ing of aminoacyl-tRNA to ribosomes and the translocation of peptidyltRNA and mRNA on ribosomes, respectively. Each factor also stimulates a ribosome-dependent GTP hydrolysis reaction. The structures and func­ tions of these factors have been reviewed in detail (Brot, 1977; Miller and Weissbach, 1977).

1975). Apparent discrimination was due to a quantitative difference in the amounts of initiation factors required for optimal/ft vitro synthesis. There are reports that initiation factor eIF-3 is heterogeneous and that sub­ species specifically stimulate the translation of certain classes of mRNA. Hey wood et al. (1974) partially purified eIF-3 from chick muscle which stimulates translation of myosin mRNA but not globin mRNA, while the converse was true of reticulocyte eIF-3. These studies are controversial and difficult to analyze, partly because the components studied were not pure.

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