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By Manfred Krifka, Austinlsaarbriicken

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There are also indefinitely many cases where the intuitive judgments are that such dependencies are not possible. These are usually called judgments of disjoint reference, a kind of independence of reference assignment. The terminology was introduced in Lasnik (1976), but as with "coreference," it must be understood somewhat loosely. The asterisks in (47) mean that the < previous page page_30 If you like this book, buy it! next page > < previous page page_31 next page > Page 31 indicated referential dependencies are judged impermissible.

C. I had a terrible fight with that bastard yesterday. Each of the italicized expressions is used to refer to someone, to pick out an individual about whom something is being said, but a pointing gesture or a nod or some similar nonlinguistic means may be needed to indicate who this is. These same expressions, however, can be used in contexts where such pointing is unnecessary because they are linked to other antecedent expressions. In (40) speakers judge that the bracketed italicized expressions can be understood as coreferential with, having the same reference as, the bracketed unitalicized expressions that serve as their antecedents, and furthermore, they can be understood as dependent for their reference on the reference assigned to their antecedents.

You might deny this by noting that the passionate kisser is unlikely to stop with a single kiss. We can agree with that observation and may even agree with you that assertion of (14) does strongly suggest or imply the truth of (16c) but nonetheless disagree that the implication is an entailment. For example, we might want to maintain that a situation with one or a few kisses can nonetheless involve passionate kissing, perhaps persuading you by showing a film of a single kiss which you will agree is a passionate one.

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